The Python programming language

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See also Python performance.

Python 2 or Python 3?

My article Why should OpenStack move to Python 3 right now? explains why you should move to Python 3 right now.

Python 2 will reach its end of life in 2020: see Python 2.7 Release Schedule. At Pycon US 2014, the support was extended from 2015 to 2020 to give more time to companies to port their applications to Python 3.

Compile Python extensions on Windows

  • Install Windows SDK

  • Run “Windows SDK Command Prompt”

  • Type:

    setenv /x64 /release
    set MSSDK=1

See also Windows.

Build a Python Wheel package on Windows

  • Install pip

  • Install wheel using pip:

    \python27\python.exe -m pip install wheel
  • Run “Windows SDK Command Prompt”

  • Setup the environment to build code in 64-bit mode (replace /x64 with /x86 for 32bit):

    setenv /x64 /release
    set MSSDK=1
  • Go to your project

  • Cleanup the project (is it really needed?):

    del build\*
    del dist\*
  • Build the wheel and upload it:

    \python27\python.exe bdist_wheel upload


  • To build a 32-bit wheel, you need 32-bit Python and configure the SDK using /x86.
  • Python 2.7 requires the Windows SDK v7.0 because Python 2.7 is built using Visual Studio 2008 (MSVCR90). Python 3.3 is built using Visual Studio 2010.
  • It looks like Python 3.3 doesn’t need MSSDK and DISTUTILS_USE_SDK environment variables anymore.

See also Windows.

Python 3 is better than Python 2

Comparison on unequal types compares the type names

Python 2 implements a strange comparison operator. For the instruction a < b, if a.__cmp__(b) and b.__cmp__(a) raise NotImplementedError or return NotImplemented, Python 2 compares the name of the types. Basically, a < b becomes type(a).__name__ < type(b).__name__. It’s more complex than that, if a type is a number, the comparison uses an empty string as the type name.

Extract of the default_3way_compare() function of Python 2 Objects/object.c:

/* different type: compare type names; numbers are smaller */
if (PyNumber_Check(v))
    vname = "";
    vname = v->ob_type->tp_name;
if (PyNumber_Check(w))
    wname = "";
    wname = w->ob_type->tp_name;
c = strcmp(vname, wname);

Example in Python 2:

>>> [1, 2, 3] < "abc"
>>> type([1, 2, 3]).__name__, type("abc").__name__
('list', 'str')
>>> type([1, 2, 3]).__name__ < type("abc").__name__

As a proof of the behaviour, it’s possible to use type subclasses to modify the type names:

>>> class z(list): pass
>>> class a(str): pass
>>> [1, 2, 3] < "abc"
>>> z([1, 2, 3]) < a("abc")
>>> type(z([1, 2, 3])).__name__, type(a("abc")).__name__
('z', 'a')
>>> type(z([1, 2, 3])).__name__ < type(a("abc")).__name__

Python 3 doesn’t have this strange fallback in comparison. It now raises TypeError on this case:

>>> [1, 2, 3] < "abc"
TypeError: unorderable types: list() < str()

As a consequence, the builtin cmp() function was removed from Python 3. To sort a list, the key parameter of list.sort() must be used. By the way, on Python 2, using a key function (list.sort(key=func)) is more efficient than using a cmp function (list.sort(cmp=func)).

On Python 2.7, it’s possible to enable Python 3 comparison using -3 -Werror command line options:

$ python2 -3 -Werror
>>> [1, 2, 3] < "abc"
DeprecationWarning: comparing unequal types not supported in 3.x

Bugs already fixed in Python 3

Some race conditions are already fixed in Python 3. The fix may be backported to Python 2, but it takes more time because the Python 3 branch diverged from the Python 2 branch, and Python core developer focus on Python 3.

In Python 2, file descriptors are inherited by default in the subprocess module, close_fds must be set explicitly to True. A race condition causes two child processes to inherit a file descriptor, whereas only one specific child process was supposed to inherit it. Python 3.2 fixed this issue by closing all file descriptors by default. Python 3.4 is even better: now all file descriptors are not inheritable by default (PEP 446: Make newly created file descriptors non-inheritable).

Bugs that won’t be fixed in Python 2 anymore


The Unicode support of Python 3 is much much better than in Python 2. Many Unicode issues were closed as “won’t fix” in Python 2, especially issues opened after the release of Python 3.0. Some examples:

Bugs in the C stdio (used by the Python I/O)

Python 2 uses the buffer API of the C standard library: fopen(), fread(), fseek(), etcThis API has many bugs. Python works around some bugs, but some others cannot be fixed (in Python). Examples:

Python 3 has a much better I/O library: the io module which uses directly system calls like open(), read() and lseek().

Hash DoS

The hash function of Python 2 has a “worst complexity” issue which can be exploited for a denial of service (DoS). It’s called the “hash DoS” vulnerability. Python 3.3 randomizes the hash function by default, Python 2.7 can use randomized hash if enabled explicitly. But the real fix is in Python 3.4 with the PEP 456 which now uses the new SipHash hash function which is much safer.


The subprocess module is written in pure Python in Python 2.7. There are complex race conditions. The correct fix was to reimplement the critical part in C, fix implemented in Python 3.

See also the PEP 446: Make newly created file descriptors non-inheritable which also fixes a complex issues related to subprocesses, PEP implemented in Python 3.4.

Workaround: install the subprocess32 module from PyPI (and use it instead of subprocess).

No more polling (busy loop) in Lock.acquire(timeout)

In Python 3.2, locks got a new optional timeout parameter which uses the native OS function.

Extract of threading._Condition.wait(timeout) of Python 2.7:

def wait(self, timeout=None):
    # Balancing act:  We can't afford a pure busy loop, so we
    # have to sleep; but if we sleep the whole timeout time,
    # we'll be unresponsive.  The scheme here sleeps very
    # little at first, longer as time goes on, but never longer
    # than 20 times per second (or the timeout time remaining).
    endtime = _time() + timeout
    delay = 0.0005 # 500 us -> initial delay of 1 ms
    while True:
        gotit = waiter.acquire(0)
        if gotit:
        remaining = endtime - _time()
        if remaining <= 0:
        delay = min(delay * 2, remaining, .05)

Moreover, subprocess.Popen.communicate() also got a timeout parameter.

Monotonic clocks

Timeouts must not use the system clocks but a monotonic clock. It is explained in the PEP 418 which has been implemented in Python 3.3.

Example of issue with system clock changes: threading.Timer/timeouts break on change of win32 local time.

See also the PEP 418 for a list of issues related to the system clock.

Other bugs

Misc bugs:

Python 2 is slower

  • The C code base doesn’t respect strict aliasing and so must be compiled with -fno-strict-aliasing (to avoid bugs when the compiler optimizes the code) which is inefficient. The structure of Python C type has been deeply rewritten to fix the root cause.
  • Python 3 uses less memory for Unicode text thanks to the PEP 393: Flexible String Representation. Many operations on “ASCII” strings are faster on Python 3 than Python 2.

Port Python 3 code to Python 2

Notes based on my experience of porting Tulip to Python 2 (Trollius project).

  • Remove keyword-only parameter: replace def func(*, loop=None): ... with def func(loop=None): ...
  • super() requires the class and self, and the class must inherit from object
  • A class must inherit explicitly from object to use properties and super(), otherwise super() fails with a cryptic “TypeError: must be type, not classobj” message.
  • Python 2.6: str.format() doesn’t support {}. For example, "{} {}".format("Hello", "World") must be written "{0} {1}".format("Hello", "World").
  • Replace list.clear() with del list[:]
  • Replace list2 = list.copy() with list2 = list[:]
  • Python 3.3 has new specialized OSError exceptions: BlockingIOError, InterruptedError, TimeoutError, etc. Python 2 has IOError, OSError, EnvironmentError, WindowsError, VMSError, mmap.error, select.error, etc.
  • raise ValueError("error") from None should be replaced with raise ValueError("error")
  • memoryview should be replaced with buffer

Major changes in between Python 2.6 and 3.3:

  • threading.Lock.acquire() and subprocess.Popen.communicate() support timeout. A busy loop can be used for threading.Lock.acquire() (non-blocking call + sleep) in Python 2.
  • time.monotonic() (3.3)
  • set and dict literals
  • memoryview object
  • collections.OrderedDict (2.7, 3.1)
  • weakref.WeakSet (2.7, 3.0)
  • argparse
  • Python 2 doesn’t support ssl.SSLContext nor certificate validation
  • ssl module: SSLContext, SSLWantReadError, SSLWantWriteError, SSLError
  • Python 2 does not support yield from and does not support return in generators (3.3)
  • Python 2 doesn’t support the nonlocal keyword: use mutable types like list or dict instead (3.0)

New modules in the standard library between Python 2.6 and Python 3.3:

  • concurrent.futures (3.2)
  • faulthandler (3.3)
  • importlib (3.1)
  • ipaddress (3.3)
  • lzma (3.3)
  • tkinter.ttk (3.1)
  • unittest.mock (3.3)
  • venv (3.3)

Python 3.4 has even more modules:

  • asyncio
  • enum
  • ensurepip
  • pathlib
  • selectors
  • statistics
  • tracemalloc

History of Python releases

See also Status of Python branches.

  • Python 3.5: September 2015
  • Python 3.4: March 2014
  • Python 3.3: September 2012
  • Python 3.2: February 2011
  • Python 2.7: July 2010
  • Python 3.1: June 2009
  • Python 3.0: December 2008
  • Python 2.6: October 2008
  • Python 2.5: September 2006
  • Python 2.0: October 2000
  • Python 1.5: April 1999

History of the Python language (syntax)

Python for PHP developers

Compile CPython on Windows

To build the Python ssl extension:


  • Visual Studio 2015 (for Python 3.6)
  • CPython source code: get it using Mercurial (TortoiseHG on Windows)
  • svn.exe in PATH: install TortoiseSVN, but check the [x] command line tools in the installer
  • ActivePerl: Community Edition, 64-bit


PCbuild\build -p x64 -d -e

See also: PCbuild/readme.txt.

See also Windows.

Developer mode

Enable all runtime debug checks in strict mode:

PYTHONMALLOC=debug python3.6 -Wd -bb -X faulthandler

Python builtin types

Builtin scalar types:

  • bool, int, float, complex, bytes, str

Builtin container types:

  • Sequence: tuple, list
  • Mapping: dict
  • Set: frozenset, set


  • None, Ellipsis (...), False (bool(0)), True (bool(1))

Python developer mode

Strict developer mode:

PYTHONMALLOC=debug python3.6 -Werror -bb -X faulthandler

Developer mode:

PYTHONMALLOC=debug python3.6 -Wd -b -X faulthandler
  • Show DeprecationWarning and ResourceWarning warnings: python -Wd
  • Show BytesWarning warning: python -b
  • Enable faulthandler to get a Python traceback on segfault and fatal errors: python -X faulthandler
  • Debug hooks on Python memory allocators: PYTHONMALLOC=debug
  • Enable Python assertions (assert) and set __debug__ to True: remove (or just ignore) -O or -OO command line arguments

See also PYTHONASYNCIODEBUG=1 for asyncio.

CPython infra

Package Index (PyPI)

cpython GitHub project



Python platforms

Platform sys.platform
AIX aix3, aix4 posix
Cygwin cygwin ?
FreeBSD freebsd5, freebsd6, ... posix
Java java (with a suffix?) ?
Linux linux on Python 3, linux2 on Python 2 (*) posix
Mac OS X darwin posix
NetBSD netbsd (with a suffix?) posix
OpenBSD openbsd5 posix
Solaris sunos5 posix
Windows win32 nt

sys.platform comes from the MACHDEP variable which is built by the configure script using:

  • uname -s command output converted to lowercase, with some special rules (ex: linux3 is replaced with linux on Python 3)
  • uname -r command output (or uname -v on AIX, UnixWare or OpenUNIX)
  • $host variable (./configure --host=xxx parameter) when cross-compiling

(*) sys.platform was also linux3 on old versions of Python 2.6 and Python 2.7 with Linux kernel 3.x.

Python environment markers

pip supports environment markers in requirements since pip 6.0, example of requirement:

futures; python_version < '3.2'

pip uses ”;” (colon) separator but requires ”; ” (colon, space) if the requirement uses an URL. A space is added for readability (spaces are ignored).

Environment markers in extra requirements of setup.cfg:

test =
    futures :python_version < '3.2'

The separator is the ”:” (colon), space is only used for readability (spaces are ignored).

Environment markers in extra requirements of

expected_requirements = {
    "test:python_version < '3.2'": ['futures'],
    "test": ['six']

pip issues

  • Upgrading pip3 replaces /usr/bin/pip with the Python 3 pip
  • Once, I got two dist-info directories for pip (ls /usr/lib*/python3.4/site-packages/pip-*.dist-info -d) which broke python3 -m venv: ensurepip was unable to find the system pip and Fedora doesn’t include bundled wheel packages of ensurepip in the python3-libs package
  • With pip 7.0 and newer, pip3 install Routes; pip2 install Routes installs the Python 3 version of Routes on Python 2. pip3 creates a wheel package using 2to3 but Routes 2.1 announces universal wheel support which is wrong.
  • Wheel caching doesn’t work on pip 7.0, 7.0.1 and 7.0.2. It was fixed in pip 7.0.3.

pbr issues

If running tox -e py27 fails the following error, replace 2014.1.4 with 2014.1.5 in setup.cfg:

ValueError: git history requires a target version of
pbr.version.SemanticVersion(2014.1.5), but target version is
pbr.version.SemanticVersion(2014.1.4) error in setup command: Error parsing
/home/haypo/prog/redhat/openstack-nova/setup.cfg: ValueError: git history
requires a target version of pbr.version.SemanticVersion(2014.1.5), but
target version is pbr.version.SemanticVersion(2014.1.4)



  • Write a scenario to reproduce the memory leak. The ideal is a scenario taking only a few minutes
  • Enable tracemalloc and replay the scenario
  • Take regulary tracemalloc snapshots
  • Compare snapshots
  • Enjoy!

If your application only uses Python memory allocators, tracemalloc must show your the exact memory usage counting every single bytes.

If a C extensions uses other memory allocators like malloc(), tracemalloc is unable to trace these allocations.

If the application allocates a lot of memory to process some data (memory peak) and then releases almost all memory, except a few small objects, the memory may become fragmented. For example, the application only uses 20 MB whereas the operating system see 24 or 30 MB.

See also:

Zero copy


offset = 0
view = memoryview(large_data)
while True:
    chunk = view[offset:offset + 4096]
    offset += file.write(chunk)

This copy creates views on large_data without copying bytes, no bytes is copied in memory.



  • obj.__iter__()
  • obj.__getitem__()


  • obj.__nonzero__()
  • obj.__len__() != 0

item in obj:

  • obj.__contains__()
  • list-like: obj.__getitem__(0), obj.__getitem__(1) until obj.__getitem__(int) returns item!


Put a breakpoint:

  • hit ‘m’, search ‘test_api’ to open glance.tests.unit.test_api

datetime strptime



date = datetime.datetime.strptime(date, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z')

year-month-day hour:minute:second timezone:

%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z